Academic Staff
Dr. sajjad

Dr. Sajjad Muhammad

Research Assistant Professor
Member of the Smart Society Lab

Risk-Resilience-Sustainability Nexus,
Natural Hazards, RS&GIS Applications,
Climate Change Impacts

AAB 1222
(852) 3411 2579
(852) 3411 5990



Dr. Sajjad earned his Ph.D. from the Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre at the City University of Hong Kong. He was a visiting scholar at Princeton University USA for one year (2018-19). He earned his Master's from Xiamen University, China under a fully-funded CSC Scholarship.  He works on the frontiers of interdisciplinary climate research to explore the risk-resilience-sustainability nexus using geospatial data science approaches (e.g., spatial statistical modeling, machine learning, geo-visualization/analytics). Dr. Sajjad is a dedicated person in the field of geospatial technologies (RS, GIS, Online mapping, etc.), and their application to Environmental, Public Health, Urban Planning/Design, and interdisciplinary Climate Science. He also works on Nature-based solutions for resilience building using GI-Science. One of his core areas of work includes developing integrated spatial frameworks to provide sustainable and resilient solutions. Looking forward, Dr. SAJJAD is determined to provide solutions to risk and resilience-related challenges faced by urban areas under Global Environmental Changes using coupled location intelligence (geospatial modeling), AI, and Machine Learning-based approaches for long-term sustainability.




Ph.D., Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (2017-2020)

Visiting Scholar, School of Engineering & Applied Science, Princeton University, USA (2018-2019)

MS., Coastal & Ocean Management Institute, Xiamen University, Fujian, China (2015-2017) - Distinction

BS (Honors), Department of Geography, GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan (2009-2013) – Gold Medalist




  • Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation
  • Natural Resource Evaluation and Policy Approaches
  • Earth Systems: Shaping Landscapes
  • Geospatial Data Science for Resilient Urban and Environmental Systems


Research Interests


  • Risk-Resilience-Sustainability Nexus
  • Geographies of Natural Hazards, Vulnerabilities and Resilience
  • Spatial Data Science, Machine Learning & Geo-AI
  • Modelling Coupled Environmental & Urban Systems
  • Interdisciplinary Climate Studies using RS&GIS
  • Nature-Based-Solutions (NBS) for Risk Mitigation & Adaptation


Research Supervision (Ph.D. Students)


Mirza Waleed: Geo Big-data, Google Earth Engine, ML/AI, Flood Risk, Urbanization, Climate Change
Luk Sum Yee: Coastal Natural Systems, Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, Ecosystem Resilience, Sustainability


Consultancy Services


  • Science-based Research and Reporting from Geographical Perspectives
  • Current and Future Climate Risk Assessment (Floods, Typhoons, Droughts, Sea Level Rise)
  • Physical Climate Risk Reporting
  • Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) and ESG
  • Environmental Impact Assessment
  • Spatial Business Analysis (Network, Service Area, Site Suitability, Incident Mapping, Land Management, etc.)



Google Scholar:




Publons :


ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1576-1342



Editorial Contributions


Review Editor:

  • Frontiers in Environmental Science (IF 5.411)
  • Frontiers in Earth Science (IF 3.661)
  • Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution (IF 4.493)
  • Frontiers in Marine Science (IF 5.247)


Verified Peer Reviewer:

  • Sustainable Cities and Society
  • Progress in Physical Geography
  • Journal of Environmental Management
  • International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Geo-Spatial Information Science
  • Natural Hazards 
  • International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences
  • Environment International
  • Environmental Science & Technology
  • Science of the Total Environment
  • Building and Environment
  • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews




  • One-off Special Allowance (2021-2022) – 4,500 HK$ – Department of Geography, HKBU
  • Research Talent Hub Awardee (R&D) of the Innovation and Technology Commission, HKSAR (2021)
  • Partial Research Activities Fund 2018/19 (30,000 HK$) – CityU of Hong Kong
  • Fully funded Hong Kong Ph.D. Scholarship 2017/20 (~576,000 HK$) – CityU of Hong Kong
  • Fully funded China Scholarship Council Masters Scholarship 2015/17 (~86,500 HK$) – CSC China
  • Xiamen University Excellence Award for International Students 2016
  • Best paper presentation award at research forum organized by College of Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, China 2016
  • First Class with Distinction in BS(Hons) Geography 2013 – Gold Medalist
  • Student of the Year at Department of Geography GC University Faisalabad, Pakistan




  • Talk on “Risk-Resilience-Sustainability Nexus in a changing world” – the Smart Society Lab Research Dialogue Workshop 2023 May 10, 2023. Hong Kong Baptist University HKSAR
  • Oral Presentation on “Towards hazard, vulnerability, and resilience-based assessment of spatial-temporal trends, patterns, and disparities in drought risk” – EGU 2023, April 23-28, 2023. Vienna, Austria
  • Invited Talk on “Reviewing Scientific Articles, Critically, and Formulizing Frameworks for Effective Research and Results Communication” (Sukkur IBA University, Pakistan – 18-March-2022)
  • Departmental Seminar on “Nature-based Resilience Building Solutions: The Role of Natural Habitats to Reduce Coastal Vulnerability in the Face of Climate Change” (GEOG-HKBU, HKSAR – 18-Nov.-2021)
  • Invited Seminar Talk on “Building Resilient Coastal Communities:
    Coupling Typhoon Destructiveness and Social-Ecological Systems for Informed Planning”
    (ESSC-CUHK, HKSAR – 20-Aug.-2021)
  • Invited talk on International Industrial Ecology Day (June 21st, 2021)
  • Engineering Mechanics Institute Conference 2019 (California Institute of Technology, USA)
  • Princeton Research Day 2019 – Session Chair (Princeton University, USA)
  • Workshop on Disasters and Societies 2019 (University of Geneva, Switzerland)
  • International Workshop on Urbanization in Watersheds 2016 (The Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences)
  • International Workshop on Earth Observation and Remote Sensing Applications 2017 (IEEE Sponsored)
  • Forum on New Path of Urbanization and Ecological Civilization 2016 –Best Paper Award (XMU China)


Book Chapter(s) - Peer-Reviewed


  • Waleed, M., Sajjad M.* (2023) Warming Cities in Pakistan: Evaluating Spatial-temporal Dynamics of Urban Thermal Field Variance Index under Rapid Urbanization. In: Cheshmehzangi, A., He, B., Sharifi, A., and Matzarakis, A. (eds) Climate Change and Cooling Cities. Springer. https://link.springer.com/book/9789819936748

  • Akhtar, Z., Sajjad, M., Imran, M., Ofli, F. (2023) Risk Mapping in Managing Flood Vulnerability in Disaster Management. In: Singh, A. (eds) International Handbook of Disaster Research. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-8800-3_177-1

  • Sajjad M. (Corresponding Author) (2020) Impacts, Drivers, and Future Adaptation Opportunities for a Warming Pakistan: Learnings from an Industrialized City. In: Leal Filho W., Luetz J., Ayal D. (eds) Handbook of Climate Change Management. Springer, Cham. http://doi-org-443.webvpn.fjmu.edu.cn/10.1007/978-3-030-22759-3_131-1.


Journal Articles - Peer-Reviewed



  • Owolabi, T. A., & Sajjad, M (Corresponding Author). (2023). A global outlook on multi-hazard risk analysis: A systematic and scientometric review. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 103727.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Ali, Z. & Waleed, M. Has Pakistan learned from disasters over the decades? Dynamic resilience insights based on catastrophe progression and geo-information models. Natural Hazards (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-023-05976-1.
  • Waleed, M., Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Shazil, M. S., Tariq, M., & Alam, M. T. (2023). Machine learning-based spatial-temporal assessment and change transition analysis of wetlands: An application of Google Earth Engine in Sylhet, Bangladesh (1985–2022). Ecological Informatics, 75, 102075.
  • Khoshnazar, A., Perez, G. C., & Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author) (2023). Characterizing spatial-temporal drought risk heterogeneities: a hazard, vulnerability and resilience-based modeling. Journal of Hydrology, 129321.
  • Mehmood, M. S., Rehman, A., Sajjad, M., Zafar, Z., Zhai, S., & Qin, Y. (2023). Evaluating land use/cover change associations with urban surface temperature via machine learning and spatial modelling: past trends and future simulations in Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan. Frontiers Ecology and Evolution, (Accepted).
  • Bozeman, J. F., Chopra, S. S., James, P., Sajjad, M., Cai, H., Tong, K., Carrasquillo, M., Rickenbacker, H., Nock, D., Ashton, W., Heidrich, O., Derrible, S., & Bilec, M. (2023). Three research priorities for just and sustainable urban systems: Now is the time to refocus. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 00, 1– 13.
  • Waleed, M., Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Acheampong, A. O., & Alam, M. (2023). Towards Sustainable and Livable Cities: Leveraging Remote Sensing, Machine Learning, and Geo-Information Modelling to Explore and Predict Thermal Field Variance in Response to Urban Growth. Sustainability, 15(2), 1416.
  • Zafar, Z., Mehmood, M. S., Shiyan, Z., Zubair, M., Sajjad, M., & Yaochen, Q. (2023). Fostering deep learning approaches to evaluate the impact of urbanization on vegetation and future prospects. Ecological Indicators, 146, 109788.
  • Shafi, A., Chen, S., Waleed, M., & Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author) (2023). Leveraging machine learning and remote sensing to monitor long-term spatial-temporal wetland changes: Towards a national RAMSAR inventory in Pakistan. Applied Geography, 151, 102868.



  • Mehmood, M. S., Zafar, Z., Sajjad, M., Hussain, S., Zhai, S., & Qin, Y. (2023). Time Series Analyses and Forecasting of Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity Using ARIMA Model in Punjab, Pakistan. Land, 12(1), 142.
  • Kanwal, S., Ding, X., Wu, S., & Sajjad, M. (2022). Vertical ground displacements and its impact on erosion along the Karachi coastline, Pakistan. Remote Sensing, 14(9), 2054.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Raza, S. H., & Shah, A. A. (2022). Assessing Response Readiness to Health Emergencies: A Spatial Evaluation of Health and Socio-Economic Justice in Pakistan. Social Indicators Research, 1-31.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Munir, H., Kanwal, S., & Naqvi, S. A. A. (2022). Spatial inequalities in education status and its determinants in Pakistan: A district-level modelling in the context of sustainable development Goal-4. Applied Geography, 140, 102665.
  • Waleed M, Sajjad M. (Corresponding Author), (2022). Leveraging cloud-based computing and spatial modeling approaches for land surface temperature disparities in response to land cover change: Evidence from Pakistan. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 25, 100665.



  • Waleed M, Sajjad M. (Corresponding Author), (2021). Leveraging cloud-based computing and spatial modeling approaches for land surface temperature disparities in response to land cover change: Evidence from Pakistan. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment. Nov 18:100665.
  • Naqvi SAA, Sajjad M (Equal First Authorship), Waseem LA, Khalid S, Shaikh S, Kazmi SJH. Integrating Spatial Modelling and Space–Time Pattern Mining Analytics for Vector Disease-Related Health Perspectives: A Case of Dengue Fever in Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(22):12018. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182212018
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Chan, J. C., & Chopra, S. S. (2021). Rethinking disaster resilience in high-density cities: Towards an urban resilience knowledge system. Sustainable Cities and Society, 69, 102850.
  • Ali, G., Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Kanwal, S., Xiao, T., Khalid, S., Shoaib, F., & Gul, H. N. (2021). Spatial–temporal characterization of rainfall in Pakistan during the past half-century (1961–2020). Scientific reports, 11(1), 1-15. (2021 Top-100 Downloaded Papers (top 15%) Award by Nature Portfolio)
  • Kanwal, S., Ding, X., Sajjad, M., Nazeer, M., & Zia, I. (2021). Remote Sensing of Narrowing Barrier Islands along the Coast of Pakistan over Past 30 Years. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 9(3), 295.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author) (2021). Disaster resilience in Pakistan: A comprehensive multi-dimensional spatial profiling. Applied Geography, 126, 102367.



  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), & Chan, J. C. (2020). Tropical Cyclone Impacts on Cities: A Case of Hong Kong. Frontiers in Built Environment, 6, 172.
  • Kanwal, S., Sajjad, M., Gabriel, H. F., & Hussain, E. (2020). Towards sustainable wastewater management: A spatial multi-criteria framework to site the Land-FILTER system in a complex urban environment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 266, 121987.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Lin, N., & Chan, J. C. (2020). Spatial heterogeneities of current and future hurricane flood risk along the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Science of The Total Environment, 136704.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Chan, J. C., & Lin, N. (2020). Incorporating natural habitats into coastal risk assessment frameworks. Environmental Science & Policy, 106, 99-110.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), Chan, J. C., & Kanwal, S. (2020). Integrating spatial statistics tools for coastal risk management: A case-study of typhoon risk in mainland China. Ocean & Coastal Management, 184, 105018.
  • Raza SH, Haq W, and Sajjad, M. (2020). COVID-19: A Psychosocial Perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 554624.  
  • Kanwal, S., Ding, X., Sajjad, M., & Abbas, S. (2020). Three Decades of Coastal Changes in Sindh, Pakistan (1989–2018): A Geospatial Assessment. Remote Sensing, 12(1), 8.



  • Ali, G., Abbas, S., Pan, Y., Chen, Z., Hussain, J., Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), & Ashraf, A. (2019). Urban environment dynamics and low carbon society: Multi-criteria decision analysis modeling for policy makers. Sustainable Cities and Society, 51, 101763.
  • Sajjad, M. (Corresponding Author), & Chan, J. C. (2019). Risk assessment for the sustainability of coastal communities: A preliminary study. Science of The Total Environment, 671, 339-350.
  • Sajjad, M., Li, Y., Li, Y., Chan, J. C., & Khalid, S. (2019). Integrating typhoon destructive potential and social‐ecological systems toward resilient coastal communities. Earth's Future, 7(7), 805-818.



  • Khalid, S., Shoaib, F., Qian, T., Rui, Y., Bari, A. I., Sajjad, M., ... & Wang, J. (2018). Network constrained spatio-temporal hotspot mapping of crimes in Faisalabad. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, 11(3), 599-622.
  • Sajjad, M., Li, Y., Tang, Z., Cao, L., & Liu, X. (2018). Assessing hazard vulnerability, habitat conservation, and restoration for the enhancement of mainland China's coastal resilience. Earth's Future, 6(3), 326-338.